When this happens, plants are severely damaged and new leaf growth is unlikely. 7). Native Indian Grass is tolerant of an array of soil types, including heavy clay. Herbaceous stems. Below them are the glumes — two bracts without flowers. Because awns are of different lengths, shapes, and colors, they are often used to identify a particular grass. Different Types Of Grass – Bermuda One of the most used types of grasses in South Africa is Bermuda. Rhizomes are a desirable trait in turfgrasses because they allow plants to send new shoots into areas that are thin or damaged by traffic, drought, and/or disease. While there are only grass types, cool season and warm season grasses, there are thousand of grass species throughout the wold. Figure 1. Seed head. Carbohydrates can be stored in stem and crown tissues when they are made faster than they are used. Hare’s-Tail Grass (Lagurus ovatus) Also called the bunny’s tail grass, the name comes from the feathery cream to white flower spikes that make excellent cut flowers too. The root is fibrous, or composed of many small roots that move out in all directions. Some sheaths are flattened; others are rounded. Plants with herbaceous stems are only supported by water in the stem. 8. Stem apex of grass plant. 10). The tallest of the grasses, especially when the summer season is blessed with adequate rainfall, is the Big Bluestem. These sheaths act as protective coverings for the roots. 5). The basic requirements for germination of turfgrass seed are adequate moisture, favorable temperatures, and oxygen. Types of stem. As the leaf expands and elongates it begins to produce its own food through a process called photosynthesis. An auricle is another small piece of leaf tissue that grows from the collar and can also vary in size and shape. Cheat grass is an invasive weed in the Western U.S. Urban dwellers may notice winter annual grasses along roadways, which also require pre-emergent control. Crabgrass, a common annual grass weed, has a modified spike-like raceme. Most of us assume that grass is grass and that the types growing in our own yards are the same types growing everywhere else. Happy in just about any, average soil. Rhizomes are stems that originate at the base of the main stem and grow horizontally below the ground surface. Awn: a bristle characteristic of the spikelets in some grasses. These grasses are referred to as the cool-season turfgrasses. Kentucky bluegrass is the premier sod grass in the northern U.S. because its rhizomes allow turf to 'knit' and hold together as the sod is cut, rolled, and lifted. 2). In some grass species, rhizomes produce growing points (often referred to as nodes) which give rise to roots and shoots forming new or 'daughter' plants. These ridges are the beginnings of the new leaves. This is one reason why turfgrass professionals do not apply excess amounts of nitrogen and mow below optimum heights of cut in spring. The flowering (reproductive) part is the seedhead. Stems of most perennial grasses die back to the approximate base of the stem each year. It is an extremely hardy annual grass variety that can grow in all soil types from sandy to moist, well-drained soils. A ligule is a thin piece of tissue that extends just above the top of the leaf sheath and can vary in size and shape. The jointed stem (culm) of a grass plant consists of nodes and internodes. 11). Peak tiller formation occurs in early spring and fall. 12). As the surface water is depleted, roots begin using up water deeper in the soil. Among these tissues are root hairs -- tiny hair-like outgrowths that grow from the root surface into the surrounding soil. This process is so gradual that the transition is unnoticeable. Eventually, the coleoptile withers away and is no longer visible. Stolons. Roots: Roots are the below-ground part of a grass plant that anchor it in the soil and take-up water and nutrients. There are two types of chickweed which occur in gardens commonly; Cerastium vulgatum (the Mouse-ear chickweed) and Stellaria media (the common chickweed). Figure 4. The seed head is the flowering part of the grass plant. Typically, they are not seen in turf since they are mowed off before they reach maturity. Roots of cool-season grasses can grow at soil temperatures below 50°F, but growth slows dramatically as temperatures approach freezing (32°F). Leaves are parallel-veined. On some grasses, a sheathlike bract, called spathe, encloses or partly encloses the seedhead. They have nodes, internodes, and scalelike leaves. This area is called the region of cell elongation. Some grasses have stems which creep along the surface of the ground and give rise to new shoots (TILLERS) at their nodes. Figure 7. The latter are commonly referred to … The amount of water the roots absorb will depend primarily on the number of roots, the depth of rooting, and the amount of water in the soil. The stem. In the area just behind the meristem, new cells grow mostly in length. Once the stand is established though, rotational Growth continues from the base of the leaf after a portion of the leaf blade is mowed off. The basic unit of the seed head is called the spikelet. FINE FESCUE. The ridges are the beginning of new leaves. Behind the region of cell elongation, cells begin to develop into tissues that absorb water and nutrients. Secondary roots are produced from nodes in the crown or from nodes on horizontal stems. Leaf growth increases with increasing daylength as long as temperatures are within the optimum range and moisture is adequate. Zoysia Grass Grasses are examples of the following type of stem: (a) Suckers (b) Runners (c) Stolon (d) Rhizomes. The vegetative parts of a grass plant are roots, stems, and leaves. The entire caryopsis is surrounded by the pericarp, sometimes referred to as the ovary wall (Fig. Two tillers developing from the crown of a grass plant. They are herbaceous stems and woody stems. As a leaf begins to develop, it encloses the stem apex. Once you understand how turfgrasses grow and develop, it is easier see how they function as long-lived communities and how they tolerate traffic, mowing, and other problems. They also provide interest in the fall and winter garden, becoming key features ogf the garden during the cooler months with their spectacular feathery plumes. Root hairs number in the billions for a fully-developed root system and can greatly increase the amount of soil the roots contact. Keep in mind that some grass species do not have all the structures shown and that mowed grasses typically lack flower stems and seed heads. Diagram of a mature grass plant. The newest leaf is always on the opposite side of the stem from the leaf just below it. These will be discussed in other sections of this manual. The blade is long and narrow and grows more or less horizontally away from the main shoot. spikelet: a flowering unit comprised of one or more florets enclosed by two glumes (bracts). The flowering or seeding parts found at the top of the grass plant. It is very small (just a fraction of an inch long), white, and completely enclosed by leaf sheaths. The lemma is borne on the rachilla above the pair of glumes and the palea at the base of the flower or seed. Yes, but they are so miniscule that they cannot be seen at a glance. There are two types of root systems in grasses, the primary and the secondary. Although the crown is a stem, it does not look like the other stem types found in grasses. Tall fescue is a particularly tough cool-season grass that can survive in the Transition Zone. Brief descriptions and drawings of these parts follow : Grass roots are fibrous. This is where all new root cells are produced. The ligule, meaning little tongue, usually clasps the stem firmly on the inside of the leaf at the junction of the sheath and blade, preventing dirt and water from getting between them. In the panicle type, the spikelets are borne on branches that are arranged along the central or main stem. Mature tillers produce leaves, stems, and root systems; thus, they can function independently of the mother plant. The sheath is borne at the node and surrounds the stem like a tube. The nodes (joints) are solid and usually larger than the rest of the stem. Thus, the oldest leaves are on the outside of the plant and the youngest are located in the center of the plant. If depleted too quickly, the turf may go into the summer months in a weakened state. Turfgrass roots are very different from leaves and stems (Fig. Both rhizomes and stolons bear roots at the underside of the nodes. There are three main grass inflorescence types: 1. panicle, 2. spike, 3. raceme. Application of nitrogen fertilizer can greatly increase leaf growth if moisture and temperature are not limiting. View our privacy policy. The optimum temperatures for root growth of cool-season grasses are lower than those for shoot growth. However, if it's newly established, grazing is not encouraged during the first season. Bermuda Grass 2. The newly-laid sod generates a new root system from secondary roots formed in the crown.