1341-49-7), a chemical that dissociates into HF when dissolved in water and therefore has similar toxicity. Dit heeft te maken met het feit dat HF-moleculen waterstofbruggen vormen, waardoor ze in lange ketens aan elkaar geregen worden. Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in water. Breathing in hydrogen fluoride at high levels or in combination with skin contact can cause death from an irregular heartbeat or from fluid buildup in the lungs. At low concentration, skin burns may not be felt immediately although the delayed effects could be serious. Chronic exposure to low level of HF vapor may irritate respiratory system and cause problem to the bones. In tegenstelling tot de andere waterstofhalogeniden is waterstoffluoride een zwak zuur. Deaths have been reported from concentrated acid burns involving as little as 2.5% Body Surface Area (BSA), an area roughly the size of your hand is sufficient to cause death. No calcium gluconate gel was applied following dermal exposure. Do not let the classification as a weak acid fool you, HF is a very aggressive and dangerous acid. HF is commercially available in concentrations ranging from 10% to 49% with 49% HF being the most common. Mr. Hanly inhaled the acid's fumes, leading to his death in the emergency room of New York Hospital, Mr. Chalfen said. Waterstoffluoride, fluorwaterstofzuur of vloeizuur is een zeer corrosief zuur met als brutoformule HF. Long pants and sleeves 5. ��W@�fT>���W��*T�+�H8�'zў���S��o��s母֬{Dx]�U-V�ǘ�W��-;ۭ^ЌO����&���BO��GcoNO�'IJ�#A*f�����Jx�u�@�Q�${m���G��1�Ьr$s�PY`7��]����Zِqc1�uD VҮ�~��d��{��_��ݫ�F�q�&M��i�(3 Instability of the digestion cups due to lightweight construction (height 75mm, diameter of base 59mm, diameter at top 78mm), made of 2mm polyethylene. At physiologic pH, HF dissociates to fluoride and hydrogen ions, leading to … Skin Exposure: Strong HF acid concentrations (over 50%) and anhydrous HF in particular, cause immediate, severe, burning pain and a whitish discoloration of the skin that usually proceeds to blister formation.The usual initial signs of a dilute solution HF burn are redness, swelling and blistering, accompanied by severe throbbing pain. FACTS Online chemical incident safety database. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is only a weak acid, meaning it doesn't fully dissociate into its ions in water. Torrance!Refinery!ActionAlliance! The original article was written by Luciano Muriale, Evelyn Lee, and Steven Trend of Worksafe Western Australia, and John Genovese of the Chemistry Centre of Western Australia and published by Elsevier Science Ltd. HF is a calcium seeker. Hydrofluoric Acid HF: With a pKa of 3.15 HF is considered a weak acid in that it is not full disassociated below a pH of about 5.5 and will form complexes with many compounds including itself. HF is an extremely dangerous material and all forms, including vapors and solutions, can cause severe, slow-healing, burns to tissues. If HF is not rapidly neutralized and the fluoride ion bound, tissue destruction may continue for days and result in limb loss or death. Is a colourless solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in water, it is one of the most dangerous acids known, and has been responsible for a significant number of deaths and life changing injuries around the world. Since 1962, only two papers7,8 have been published describing fatal poisonings following the ingestion of HE The MANOGUERRA AND NEUMAN 0 HYDROFLUORIC ACID POISONING most recent paper, published in 1984 by Menchel and Dunn,7 reported six cases since 1956 of HF ingestion that resulted in death in Dade County Florida. Symptoms of HF exposure. polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon). Unsafe work practices were factors in all of the deaths. 2. x�\�nˑ��W�f� ���wϬd��1��„��f!�&{,���R�^��ĉ�s2�A��-�T�q�Y�\�R���t����t�Zl��j��6�]So�3�X/��?�ׇ���i�_���}���+{�滣@���M��n;[ֳ��&�l������O��/��lg�ٺ����e�����֋M}�����f:3�/o�ԓ�_�x=y��������߯w�ꋦ�ΫI}m�>�̋��o�_[�3.�������}������i؜�f�����o�v�{~�~�H�� �����?\ֿTX��~�8�G�q����B�鬢8����1v�RH���I�b��R��8~� �w͵��+��d���zr>�82��T�D59`�e�.W���y���C�����s�\M�� Radiological and Environmental Management, Graduate Admissions: Dr. Stephen Hoffmann, Assistant Dept. Concentrated HF (70%) will fume on contact with air. The pKa of HF is 3.2, allowing it to readily cross cell membrane barriers, es- pecially in the acidic conditions of the stomach. The toxicity of HF and HCl are very different. Even brief exposure to high levels of the vapor may cause severe damage to the respiratory system. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is a solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. DO NOT confuse hydrofluoric acid with hydrochloric acid (HCl). Hydrofluoric acid or HF is an extremely corrosive acid. �PR�jO�46C'W�j��H���-x����hq��9^ۻs��V`�3�!1�{�� W#�ح]M�&FS�M��$����]-�� �r��2�;�?��F�YO#w����A���'�>�tǰ��Vn��U�.�?�s�E>)PH�q�ŝjҶ!�y2�ijѡI���L���&�''��BEz���l��G������h�>��f�;��xu��z���2J�z�_������E>$�8�)���,�Cm�qa�(��/��R\�k^��*LH�(��k� If the penetration is sufficiently deep, decalcification of the bones may result. ��&"� Chronic exposure to low level of HF vapor may irritate respiratory system and cause problem to the bones. Special training, preparation, personal Thanks to Bob Kell at Durham University who drew attention to this incident. His condition continued to deteriorate despite, subcutaneous injections of calcium gluconate and administration of intravenous calcium and magnesium. Calcium chloride or gluconate was noted to have been administered to decalcification of bone, cardiac arrhythmia and death. 65�LZS�����q ����=GÖD����G�\]"�lB+�c�|F�c��@ 1. The injured man was hypothermic and hypocalcaemic on admission to an intensive care unit at a nearby hospital, and soon became unconscious. Refinery Explosions Raise New Warnings About Deadly Chemical Chemical experts say recent refinery explosions could have been far more devastating if deadly hydrogen fluoride was released. Surveillance for HF‐related mortality is problematic because of the lack of unique coding for this acid in hospital records and vital statistics. The only personal protective equipment worn was two pairs of wrist length rubber gloves and a pair of polyvinyl chloride sleeve protectors. Sitting increased the body surface area. Hydrofluoric acid also may be found in home rust removers. Hydrogen fluoride gas is an acute poison that may immediately and permanently damage lungs and the corneas of the eyes. Also look out for any products containing ‘bifluoride’ such as ammonium bifluoride, sodium bifluoride, potassium bifluoride or similar as these can produce hydrogen fluoride if an acid is present. Hydrogen fluoride gas, even at low levels, can irritate the eyes, nose, and respiratory tract. Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H F.This colorless gas or liquid is the principal industrial source of fluorine, often as an aqueous solution called hydrofluoric acid.It is an important feedstock in the preparation of many important compounds including pharmaceuticals and polymers, e.g. Closed toe shoes 6. PURPOSE Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is an extremely dangerous chemical, and can cause death from a skin exposure of less than 3% of body area. Both versions are commonly referred to as HF in research and industry. There were reported to be 47 deaths. Full-protectors, a face shield, rubber boots, safety goggles and mid-arm length PVC gloves should have been worn by the deceased when hydrofluoric acid was being used in the fume cupboard. 1 Deaths have been reported from concentrated acid burns (involving ≥ 50% HF solutions) to as little as 2.5% of body surface area, which is equivalent to approximately one hand and forearm. It has a molecular weight of 20.01 and can typically be found in concentrations of 48-52% in water. Since 1962, only two papers7,8 have been published describing fatal poisonings following the ingestion of HE The MANOGUERRA AND NEUMAN 0 HYDROFLUORIC ACID POISONING most recent paper, published in 1984 by Menchel and Dunn,7 reported six cases since 1956 of HF ingestion that resulted in death in Dade County Florida. It’s used to etch designs into glass and clean steel. Unlike other acids which can be rapidly neutralized, the neutralization of HF may proceed for days during which tissue destruction may continue. The DIGEST is a newsletter published by the Universities Safety Association. Thus, hydrogen fluoride (HF) is produced in two forms, as anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (the gaseous form, HF(g)) and as aqueous hydrofluoric acid (the aqueous solution form, HF(aq)). Suitable gloves include those made with PVC and neoprene. Do not let the classification as a weak acid fool you, HF is a very aggressive and dangerous acid. Supervisors must also make sure that staff and students working with HF are familiar with specific emergency procedures. Hydrofluoric Acid . potassium levels), hypomagnesemia (low magnesium levels), and sudden death. polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon). How to Treat a Hydrofluoric Acid Burn. '�d�5�2�7ȚB�jO�%�\��W$9�-+(;d-$Q� ����rit�|v�. Concentrated HF burns can be fatal if only 2% of the body surface area is exposed. Hydrofluoric acid causes painful tissue inflammation and necrosis on contact. 4 0 obj The risks. Even small splashes of high-concentration hydrogen fluoride products on the skin can be fatal. It can also be called hydrogen fluoride, fluorohydric acid or HF. Solutions of HF are colourless, acidic and highly corrosive. Two products contained ammonium bifluoride (NH 4 HF 2 , CAS no. Hydrofluoric Acid HF: With a pKa of 3.15 HF is considered a weak acid in that it is not full disassociated below a pH of about 5.5 and will form complexes with many compounds including itself. The main cause of death is from the fluoride in HF entering the bloodstream, trapping calcium and magnesium and quickly damaging the heart, muscles and nervous system. It is commonly used to etch glass and silicon wafers. Pain associated with skin exposure to HF may not occur for 1-24 hours. Exposure usually is unintentional and often is due to inadequate use of protective measures. It is used to make most fluorine-containing compounds; examples include the commonly used pharmaceutical antidepressant medication fluoxetine (Prozac) and the material PTFE (Teflon). Skin contact with concentrated solutions of HF can cause severe burns and death. @a�#����%k�k����Ww���>0�!�7idk�����1M!�����?��VMH����I��$�AB��¬M��"BKle�&@'>�N��/A �8�ǰ�y�d6����>��r`��ĪY9�Zu�'�E8�-.�~�X?�㡥ad�b���gm 1. Contact with the eyes could result in blindness. Systemic hypocalcemia should be considered a risk whenever the body surface area of skin burns from concentrated HF exceed 25 in2 (160 cm2), or about the size of the palm of your hand. Background Case reports have identified hydrofluoric acid (HF) as causing fatal work injury, and HF has both local and systemic toxicity. Concentrated HF burns can be fatal if only 2% of the body surface area is exposed. Wrong. It may have a commercial name like ‘Rustoff’ or ‘Aluminium brightener’ - so read the labels and safety data sheet (SDS). glass etching, brick cleaning, microchip etching, electroplating, and leather tanning) and even as an active ingredient in several household chemicals such as rust remover, aluminum brighteners, and heavy-du… Hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes chemical burns and is a serious systemic poison by all routes of exposure. Aqueous solutions dilute as 0.1 M will pH at approximately 1.0. Results For the 11 year period, OSHA investigated nine deaths in eight incidents which involved HF. Acid resistant apron 4. Severe health effects or death will result from depletion of calcium from blood and tissues. TqlaBt�j\Ii��#����/�lbѪ"d�\�h?u��^�TlTlh:c+�N��&I))��Z!u�jr���7�էƅ��㭠��bua3,�.����a�up��X_6�@��́ŢW&`s��!o��TY�:m^K�\��bצO2y�Ե��uGѿi�\��(����/V�;U�[z�Xȕk��A,Eh�3�������C1��H�3�{?�� 6�8J�}N16�� �=�;��~�%נr���>#|���*9;j�TQ�E��əWz��rHt�,�0J��@̢��ݘE�gƝ��FK�&����,K$+;�i�,�#nu�ϡ�D2� �� However, it is a weak acid and not a strong acid because it does not completely dissociate in water (which is the definition of a strong acid) or at least because the ions it forms upon dissociation are too strongly bound to each other for it to act as a strong acid. The technician sustained burns to 9% of his body surface area, despite washing his legs with water from a makeshift plumbing arrangement that supplied water at 6 litres/min. Exposure usually is unintentional and often is due to inadequate use of protective measures. The working height of the fume cupboard was too low (by between II 0 and 160mm) for the technician to work comfortably in a standing position. Hydrofluoric Acid . Depending on the concentration, exposure to HF can cause death. ?��Gդ�#8���f��87r$ƼyU�F�!P���W�L�Jf�P�)�GD����e�/dr@����wܖby�d��;2�Y9��A%�o%ө[`LG�*=�8��pe}�;O��X��hF* n`e�� �`?�" Because of its high reactivity toward glass and moderate reactivity toward many metals, hydrofluoric acid is usually stored in plastic containers (although polytetrafluoroethylene is slightly permeable to it). This safe work procedure applies to working directly with HF as a reagent as well as procedures where HF is a by-product. Unless you can rapidly neutralize the HF and bind the fluoride ions, tissue destruction may continue for days and result in limb loss or death. Unlike other acids, dilute HF can react with tissue and bone without significant initial pain. Ingestion: May be fatal if swallowed. This is what happens when 70% industrial grade Hydrofluoric acid (HF) comes into contact with glass. Vinegar (which contains ethanoic acid) and citric acid (found in, guess what, citrus fruits)… As indicated in the article, proper personal protective equipment (PPE) includes PVC coverall with sleeves to the wrist or full length PVC apron with sleeves protectors, mid-arm length gloves, face shield, safety goggles and rubber boots. The chemical known as HF has the ability to penetrate the skin tissues deep to the bone – it penetrates more quickly than any other typical acid. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is a clear, colorless corrosive liquid that is extremely hazardous. Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) is a highly corrosive inorganic acid. Properties Names: gaseous state: hydrogen fluoride or anhydrous hydrofluoric acid aqueous solution: hydrofluoric acid, fluorhydric acid, fluoric acid Chemical Formula: HF Hydrofluoric (HF) acid, one of the strongest inorganic acids, is used mainly for industrial purposes (eg, glass etching, metal cleaning, electronics manufacturing). �Ț����7�pF)��-���f~a��Ӧ�R����Z\���9�e�n� !-PGqs��y���H�P\��%p��e�h�q� Y}R�*���>*���?���>,j�vPB�U{}����i�Nln$���+���5�Ay��rB���%(.���3%���0f��뎮 HF can penetrate the skin extremely easily and decalcifies bones leading to tissue necrosis, which may result in amputation and death. Both versions are commonly referred to as HF in research and industry. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is one of the most dangerous corrosive inorganic acids due to its ability to destroy body tissue.1 It is well known for its ability to dissolve silica and glass and is used in numerous industrial processes (e.g. If the penetration is sufficiently deep, decalcification of the bones may result. Aqueous hydrofluoric acid is a contact-poison with the potential for deep, initially painless burns and ensuing tissue death. Stealth Acid Damage. Hydrofluoric acid also may be found in home rust removers. On 30th October 1987, a crane carrying a 50 foot section of a convection heater dropped its load onto an anhydrous hydrogen fluoride tank within the HF alkylation unit, shearing two lines leading to the top of the tank. Investigation showed that this death could have been prevented if adequate personal protective equipment had been worn during the handling of concentrated hydrofluoric acid. In addition to the strongly corrosive hydrogen ions, HF generates fluoride ions which can readily penetrate skin and tissue, and result in necrosis of subcutaneous tissue. It has a molecular weight of 20.01 and can typically be found in concentrations of 48-52% in water. Other ergonomic factors which may have reduced the likelihood of a spill include: Overall, it was noted that the laboratory did not comply with requirements of national standards in the areas of emergency procedures, safe handling and disposal of the chemical and laboratory design. He subsequently died from multi-organ failure 15 days after the hydrofluoric acid spill.Points from accident investigation. As a result of the fact that the technician was working alone, it is unclear whether the spill was from the digestion cup or the 2-1 bulk acid container. HF is a liquid or gas which is the most corrosive acid known when in concentrated form. Disclaimer: Answer contains graphic images. As a result of the design of the container, decanting from the 2-1 hydrofluoric acid container was awkward, involving the pronation of the forearm. Although a weak acid, i.e., it is not strongly disassociated, is used to etch glass. HFis a liquid or gas which is the most corrosive acid known when in concentratedform. Aqueous hydrofluoric acid is a contact-poison with the potential for deep, initially painless burns and ensuing tissue death. Hydrofluoric acid is a highly corrosive acid, capable of dissolving many materials, especially oxides. Identification numbers are CAS number 7664-39-3, UN: 1052 or RTECS: MW7875000. %PDF-1.3 HF may be known as Hydrogen fluoride (UN 1052), hydrofluoric acid (UN 1790) or fluorohydric acid. The technician involved was believed to be seated when he knocked over a small quantity (between 100 - 230ml) of hydrofluoric acid (HF) onto his lap, splashing both thighs. Disclaimer: Answer contains graphic images. Hydrofluoric acid vapors are also an inhalation hazard and can cause ocular irritation. 6, pp 705-710, 1996. and hydrogen fluoride gas (4,5). �~�-2�B|:�pΪ��l6���!ܒ;�N�����жm��r��� �}����Cր$]˜� Taken from http://www.ab.ust.hk/hseo/tips/ch/ch005.htm. Hydrogen fluoride is a gas which when in solution with water forms hydrofluoric acid,HF. Even brief exposure to high levels of the vapor may cause severe damage to the respiratory system. Hydrofluoric acid is a chemical that is a very strong acid. Even so, it's probably the most dangerous acid in this list because it's the one you're most likely to encounter. However, HF is not only a strong corrosive, but also highly toxic towards higher concentra- tions: Local effects include tissue destruction and necrosis, deaths have been reported from concentrated acid burns to as little as 2.5 % body surface area. Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H F.This colorless gas or liquid is the principal industrial source of fluorine, often as an aqueous solution called hydrofluoric acid.It is an important feedstock in the preparation of many important compounds including pharmaceuticals and polymers, e.g. Release of Hydrofluoric acid from Marathon Petroleum Refinery, Texas, USA. �c�3FR���`�'ʵ�I�+g΅E��v�aM�� ^���#����2TwM��9���ZvM 30th October 1987 Accident summary. This acid is used to make fluorine-containing drugs, including Teflon and fluorine gas. Head, Undergraduate Information: Dr. Beatriz Cisneros, Chemistry Advisor, An equal access/equal opportunity university. Deaths have been reported from concentrated acid burns involving as little as 2.5% Body Surface Area (BSA), an area roughly the size of your hand is sufficient to cause death. It is usually in liquid form. The danger of HF attacking bone calcium and the is a bit over stated: "Exposure to hydrofluoric acid may not be initially painful, and symptoms may not occur until several hours later, when the acid begins to react with calcium in the bones." HF may be known as Hydrogen fluoride (UN 1052), hydrofluoric acid (UN 1790) or fluorohydric acid. stream Think of those scenes in the Alien movies, where the alien's blood drips through solid metal, destroying everything in its path. Lack of available space in the fume cupboard, entrance of the fume cupboard was 470mm wide and 410 mm high. Inhalation may also have been another route of exposure due to the relatively high vapour pressure of HF acid.Ergonomics. Thus, hydrogen fluoride (HF) is produced in two forms, as anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (the gaseous form, HF(g)) and as aqueous hydrofluoric acid (the aqueous solution form, HF(aq)). Safety shower and emergency eyewash must be available in or near the lab. Contact HSEO for replenishment of supply. HF is similar to other acids in that the initial extent of a burn depends on the concentration, the temperature, and the duration of contact with the acid. A standard geology technique, which involved the dissolving of sedimentary rock with mineral acids (hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acid), was being undertaken in a fume cupboard. Four deaths were from skin contact with concentrated HF, and five deaths involved both skin contact and inhalation of vapor. Quality: * * * Year: 1984: Country: USA: Activity: PROCESSING: Location: CHEMICAL FACTORY 23 Because calcium is required for cell life, fluoride’s calcium-binding capacity may result in rapid cell death. Concentrated HF (70%) will fume on contact with air. Face shield (plastic) 3. 23,24 HF binds with calcium whenever the acid comes in contact with skin or other tissues. Like it's sister, HCl acid, it reacts with water with the release of heat and can cause burns on the skin. Provision of a fume cupboard that had more working space; Use of smaller sized bottles or better designed 2-1 70%w/w hydrofluoric acid containers (to minimize awkward pouring postures) or introduction of a graduated dispensing unit to negate pouring the acid; Provision of an appropriate bench height for the operator. Hydrofluoric (HF) acid, one of the strongest inorganic acids, is used mainly for industrial purposes (eg, glass etching, metal cleaning, electronics manufacturing). Hydrofluoric acid (HF) can form a toxic cloud at room temperature while exposure can lead to severe health problems and even death. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is only a weak acid, meaning it doesn't fully dissociate into its ions in water. Hydrofluoric acid is corrosive and can cause severe burning of the mouth, throat and stomach. �KBS~$�_)U�8��F�S>��#y���b�q�k�Tx+��ͩ5��4F_U��4� If concentrated HF vapours are inhaled then death can occur very quickly. Even so, it's probably the most dangerous acid in this list because it's the one you're most likely to encounter. We dunk a glowing lightbulb in HF - an acid famed for being disagreeable with glass. HF is commercially available in concentrations ranging from 10% to 49% with 49% HF being the most common. Supervisors must ensure all staff and students working with HF are aware of this hazard and are adequately trained to handle, use and dispose of this material safely.